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Wednesday, 27 July 2016

Ecstasy Treatment Programs In United States

History

Ecstasy was invented in 1912 by a chemist named Anton Köllisch from Merck pharmaceutical. The original intention of this research was to invent a medication which would stop abnormal bleeding. MDMA was one of the compounds used for the medication. For the following 65 years, MDMA was forgotten ecstasy started to become a street drug early 70s. In 1980, Ecstasy ( called Adam) got very popular in United States, mainly in gay clubs and night clubs and then raves club used started to spread all major cities. At the end of the 90s, it was in U. K and Europe.

How wide spread is Ecstasy?

A survey done by the NSDUH in 2006, showed that 512,000 individuals 12 years of age and older have used ecstasy in the month prior to the survey. There was 860,000 people in the U.S. who used ecstasy for the first time in that same year. It is an increased of 20% from the year of 2005. The cost of a tablet of ecstasy is around 15$ to 20$.

Effects of MDMA

The effects of MDMA will start from 30 to 60 minutes after taking the tablet and will last 4 to 6 hours followed by a down period of fatigue and depression that can last from a few hours to several days.

The psychological effects of MDMA are the following:

  • Euphoria
  • Decreased hostility and insecurity
  • Increased feelings of intimacy with others
  • Feelings of empathy
  • Ability to discuss anxiety-provoking subjects very easily
  • A strong sense of inner peace and self-acceptance
  • Feelings of insightfulness and mental clarity
  • increased awareness of body motion internal and external
  • loss of appetite
  • Short-term memory lapses

The physical effects of MDMA are the following:

  • Difficult to urinate
  • Abnormal dilation of pupils
  • Feel more energy
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
  • Increased mean of body temperature
  • Trisma (lockjaw)
  • Uncontrolled teeth grinding
  • Gurning (projecting the lower jaw forward. normally caused by higher doses)
  • Nystagmus (rapid, uncontrollable eye movements)

Withdrawal symptoms of ecstasy:

  • Depression
  • anxiety
  • panic attacks
  • sleeplessness
  • de-personalization
  • de-realization
  • paranoid delusions.
  • Danger of long-term use of MDMA

Some studies have shown that people addicted to ecstasy have caused depression and anxiety even in some cases months after the last used. It also can cause long-term memory problems and cognition impairment. Long-term and high dosage of ecstasy had created psychosis that can last months. In some cases, there was some liver damage to the long-term users.